Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2013
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation: The information presented as of September 30, 2013 and for the three-month and nine-month periods ended September 30, 2013 and 2012 is unaudited, but includes all adjustments (which consist only of normal recurring adjustments) that the management of Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (Navidea, the Company, or we) believes to be necessary for the fair presentation of results for the periods presented. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America have been condensed or omitted pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. The balances as of September 30, 2013 and the results for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the year. The consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with Navidea’s audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2012, which were included as part of our Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Navidea, our wholly owned subsidiaries, Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited and Cardiosonix Ltd. (Cardiosonix), and our majority owned subsidiary, Cira Biosciences, Inc. (Cira Bio). All significant inter-company accounts were eliminated in consolidation.

Financial Instruments and Fair Value: In accordance with current accounting standards, the fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value, giving the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:

Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;

Level 2 – Quoted prices in markets that are not active or financial instruments for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly; and

Level 3 – Prices or valuations that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.

A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. In determining the appropriate levels, we perform a detailed analysis of the assets and liabilities whose fair value is measured on a recurring basis. At each reporting period, all assets and liabilities for which the fair value measurement is based on significant unobservable inputs or instruments which trade infrequently and therefore have little or no price transparency are classified as Level 3. See Note 2.

The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments:
Cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities: The carrying amounts approximate fair value because of the short maturity of these instruments.
Notes payable: The carrying value of our debt at September 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012 consists of the face amount of the notes less unamortized discounts. See Note 6. At September 30, 2013, certain elements of our debt were also required to be recorded at fair value, which includes the fair value attributable to an embedded conversion option. The estimated fair value of our debt was calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis as well as a Monte Carlo simulation in 2013. These valuation methods include Level 3 inputs such as the estimated current market interest rate for similar instruments with similar creditworthiness. At September 30, 2013, the fair value of our notes payable is approximately $30.3 million.
Derivative liabilities: Derivative liabilities are related to certain outstanding warrants which are recorded at fair value. The assumptions used to calculate fair value as of September 30, 2013 include volatility, risk-free rate and expected dividends. In addition, we considered non-performance risk and determined that such risk is minimal. Unrealized gains and losses on the derivatives are classified in other expenses as a change in the fair value of financial instruments in the statements of operations. See Note 7.

Revenue Recognition: We currently generate revenue from sales of Lymphoseek. Our standard shipping terms are FOB shipping point, and title and risk of loss passes to the customer upon delivery to a carrier for shipment from Cardinal Health’s national distribution center to another point of destination. We generally recognize sales revenue related to sales of our products when the products are shipped. Our customers have no right to return products purchased in the ordinary course of business.

We earn additional revenues based on a percentage of the actual net revenues achieved by Cardinal Health on sales to end customers made during each fiscal year. The amount we charge Cardinal Health related to end customer sales of Lymphoseek are subject to a retroactive annual adjustment. To the extent that we can reasonably estimate the end-customer prices received by Cardinal Health, we record sales based upon these estimates at the time of sale. If we are unable to reasonably estimate end customer sales prices related to products sold, we record revenue related to these product sales at the minimum (i.e., floor) price provided for under our distribution agreement with Cardinal Health.

We generate additional revenue from grants to support various product development initiatives. We generally recognize grant revenue when expenses reimbursable under the grants have been incurred and payments under the grants become contractually due. We also recognize revenue from the reimbursement by our partners of certain expenditures for which the Company has principal responsibility.

Recent Accounting Developments: In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2013-2, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220). ASU 2013-2 provides entities with two basic options for reporting the effect of significant reclassifications – either (1) on the face of the statement where net income is presented or (2) as a separate footnote disclosure. Public entities will report reclassifications in both annual and interim periods. Under option 1, the effect of significant reclassifications is presented parenthetically by component of other comprehensive income (OCI) on the respective line items of net income. Entities must also parenthetically report the aggregate tax effect of reclassifications in the income tax expense (benefit) line item. Under option 2, the significant amounts of each component of OCI must be presented in a single footnote. ASU 2013-2 is effective prospectively for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2012. ASU 2013-2 did not have an effect on our consolidated financial statements.

In July 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-11, Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists (ASU 2013-11). ASU 2013-11 requires an entity to present an unrecognized tax benefit in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss (NOL) carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward except when: (1) a NOL carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward is not available as of the reporting date under the governing tax law to settle taxes that would result from the disallowance of the tax position; or (2) the entity does not intend to use the deferred tax asset for this purpose (provided that the tax law permits a choice). If either of these conditions exists, an entity should present an unrecognized tax benefit in the financial statements as a liability and should not net the unrecognized tax benefit with a deferred tax asset. ASU 2013-11 does not affect the recognition or measurement of uncertain tax positions under ASC 740. ASU 2013-11 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. ASU 2013-11 should be applied prospectively to all unrecognized tax benefits that exist at the effective date. Retrospective application is permitted. We do not expect ASU 2013-11 to have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.