Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2012
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
  1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


  a. Organization and Nature of Operations: Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (Navidea, the Company, or we), a Delaware corporation, is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of precision diagnostics and radiopharmaceutical agents. Lymphoseek® (technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept) Injection, is a novel, receptor-targeted, small-molecule, investigational radiopharmaceutical used in lymphatic mapping procedures that are performed to help stage breast cancer and melanoma. Lymphoseek is designed to identify the lymph nodes that drain from a primary tumor, which have the highest probability of harboring cancer. As discussed in Note 20(a), Subsequent Events, Lymphoseek was approved by the FDA on March 13, 2013. In addition, we are currently developing three other radiopharmaceutical agent platforms. The first, NAV4694, is an F-18 radiolabeled positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent being developed as an aid in the diagnosis of patients with signs or symptoms of cognitive impairment such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The second, NAV5001 (E-IACFT), is an Iodine-123 radiolabeled single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging agent being developed as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, with potential use as a diagnostic aid in dementia. The third, RIGScanTM, is a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody being developed as a diagnostic aid for use during surgery to help surgeons locate occult or metastatic cancer, with a primary focus on colorectal cancer. These drug products are still in development and must be cleared for marketing by the appropriate regulatory authorities before they can be sold in any markets.


Prior to August 2011, we also manufactured a line of gamma radiation detection equipment used in the application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). From July 2010 through August 2011, our gamma detection device products were marketed throughout most of the world through a distribution arrangement with Devicor Medical Products, Inc. (Devicor). Prior to July 2010, our gamma detection device products were marketed through a distribution arrangement with Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. (EES), a Johnson & Johnson company. In July 2010, Devicor acquired EES' breast biopsy business, including an assignment of the distribution agreement with the Company. As disclosed in Note 2, we sold our gamma detection device line of business (the GDS Business) to Devicor in August 2011. Prior to the disposal of the GDS Business, 96% of net sales were made to Devicor or EES for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010.


In 2005 we formed a new corporation, Cira Biosciences, Inc. (Cira Bio), to explore the development of patient-specific cellular therapies that have shown positive patient responses in a variety of clinical settings. Cira Bio was formed to combine our activated cellular therapy (ACT) technology for patient-specific oncology treatment with similar technology licensed from Cira LLC, a privately held company, for treating viral and autoimmune diseases. Navidea owns approximately 90% of the outstanding shares of Cira Bio with the remaining shares being held by the principals of Cira LLC. However, ACT is no longer under active development by Navidea.


In July 2011, we established a European business unit, Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited, to address international development and commercialization needs for our technologies, including Lymphoseek. Navidea owns 100% of the outstanding shares of Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited.

  b. Principles of Consolidation: Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Navidea, our wholly-owned subsidiary, Cardiosonix, and our majority-owned subsidiary, Cira Bio. All significant inter-company accounts were eliminated in consolidation.


  c. Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


  d. Financial Instruments and Fair Value: The fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value, giving the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:


Level 1 - Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;


Level 2 - Quoted prices in markets that are not active or financial instruments for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly; and


Level 3 - Prices or valuations that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.


A financial instrument's level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. In determining the appropriate levels, we perform a detailed analysis of the assets and liabilities whose fair value is measured on a recurring basis. At each reporting period, all assets and liabilities for which the fair value measurement is based on significant unobservable inputs or instruments which trade infrequently and therefore have little or no price transparency are classified as Level 3. See Note 3.


The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments:


  (1) Cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities: The carrying amounts approximate fair value because of the short maturity of these instruments.


  (2) Notes payable: The carrying value of our debt at December 31, 2012 is presented as the face amount of the notes less unamortized discounts. The estimated fair value of our debt was calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis, which includes Level 3 inputs such as the estimated current market interest rate for similar instruments with similar creditworthiness. At December 31, 2012, the fair value of our notes payable is approximately $9.7 million, which approximates face value. See Note 11.


  (3) Derivative liabilities: Derivative liabilities are related to certain outstanding warrants which are recorded at fair value. The assumptions used to calculate fair value as of December 31, 2011 include volatility, risk-free rate and expected dividends. In addition, we considered non-performance risk and determined that such risk is minimal. Unrealized gains and losses on the derivatives are classified in other expenses as a change in derivative liabilities in the statements of operations. See Note 12.


  e. Stock-Based Compensation: At December 31, 2012, we have instruments outstanding under two stock-based compensation plans; the 1996 Stock Incentive Plan (the 1996 Plan) and the Fourth Amended and Restated 2002 Stock Incentive Plan (the 2002 Plan). Currently, under the 2002 Plan, we may grant incentive stock options, nonqualified stock options, and restricted stock awards to full-time employees and directors, and nonqualified stock options and restricted stock awards may be granted to our consultants and agents. Total shares authorized under each plan are 1.5 million shares and 12 million shares, respectively. Although instruments are still outstanding under the 1996 Plan, the plan has expired and no new grants may be made from it. Under both plans, the exercise price of each option is greater than or equal to the closing market price of our common stock on the day prior to the date of the grant.


Stock options granted under the 1996 Plan and the 2002 Plan generally vest on an annual basis over one to four years. Outstanding stock options under the plans, if not exercised, generally expire ten years from their date of grant or 90 days from the date of an optionee's separation from employment with the Company. We issue new shares of our common stock upon exercise of stock options.


Stock-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options, are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations based on their estimated fair values. The fair value of each stock option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Expected volatilities are based on the Company's historical volatility, which management believes represents the most accurate basis for estimating expected future volatility under the current circumstances. Navidea uses historical data to estimate forfeiture rates. The expected term of stock options granted is based on the vesting period and the contractual life of the options. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of the grant. The assumptions used to calculate the fair value of stock option awards for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 are noted in the following table:


    2012   2011   2010
Expected volatility   63%-72%   64%-71%   61%-68%
Weighted-average volatility   65%   69%   66%
Expected dividends   -   -   -
Expected term (in years)   5.0-6.3   5.3-6.3   6.0-6.3
Risk-free rate   0.6%-1.2%   1.3%-2.4%   1.7%-2.4%


Compensation cost arising from stock-based awards is recognized as expense over either (1) the requisite service period or (2) the estimated performance period. The restricted stock awards are valued based on the closing stock price on the date of grant and amortized ratably over the estimated life of the award. Restricted stock may vest based on the passage of time, or they may vest upon occurrence of a specific event or achievement of goals as defined in the grant agreements. In such cases, we record compensation expense related to grants of restricted stock based on management's estimates of the probable dates of the vesting events. See Note 4.


  f. Cash and Cash Equivalents: Cash equivalents are highly liquid instruments such as U.S. Treasury bills, bank certificates of deposit, corporate commercial paper and money market funds which have maturities of less than 3 months from the date of purchase. The Company held no cash equivalents at December 31, 2012 or 2011.


  g. Inventory: All components of inventory are valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or market. We adjust inventory to market value when the net realizable value is lower than the carrying cost of the inventory. Market value is determined based on estimated sales activity and margins.

From time to time, we capitalize certain inventory costs associated with our products prior to regulatory approval and product launch based on management's judgment of probable future commercial use and net realizable value of the inventory. We could be required to permanently write down previously capitalized costs related to pre-approval or pre-launch inventory upon a change in such judgment, due to a denial or delay of approval by regulatory bodies, a delay in commercialization, slower than expected sales, or other potential factors. Conversely, our gross margins may be favorably impacted if some or all of the inventory previously expensed becomes available and is used for commercial sale. We estimate a reserve for obsolete inventory based on management's judgment of probable future commercial use, which is based on an analysis of current inventory levels, historical and estimated future sales and production rates, and estimated shelf lives. As discussed in Note 20(a), Subsequent Events, Lymphoseek was approved by the FDA on March 13, 2013. See Note 6.


  h. Property and Equipment: Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the depreciable assets ranging from 3 to 7 years, and includes amortization related to equipment under capital leases, which is amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the leased asset or the term of the lease. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, while renewals and improvements are capitalized. See Note 7.


  i. Intangible Assets: Intangible assets consist primarily of patents and trademarks. Intangible assets are stated at cost, less accumulated amortization. Patent costs are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the patents of approximately 5 to 15 years. Patent application costs are deferred pending the outcome of patent applications. Costs associated with unsuccessful patent applications and abandoned intellectual property are expensed when determined to have no recoverable value. We evaluate the potential alternative uses of all intangible assets, as well as the recoverability of the carrying values of intangible assets, on a recurring basis.


  j. Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets: Long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. See Note 7.


  k. Deferred Debt Issuance Costs: We defer costs associated with the issuance of notes payable and amortize those costs over the period of the notes using the effective interest method. In 2011, we incurred $593,000 of debt issuance costs related to notes payable. During 2012, 2011 and 2010, we recorded amortization of $296,000, $2,000 and $4,000, respectively, of deferred debt issuance costs. Other assets at December 31, 2012 and 2011 include net deferred debt issuance costs of $295,000 and $591,000, respectively. See Note 11.


  l. Derivative Instruments: Derivative instruments embedded in contracts, to the extent not already a free-standing contract, are bifurcated from the debt instrument and accounted for separately. All derivatives are recorded on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value in accordance with current accounting guidelines for such complex financial instruments. Derivative liabilities with expiration dates within one year are classified as current, while those with expiration dates in more than one year are classified as long term. We do not use derivative instruments for hedging of market risks or for trading or speculative purposes. See Note 12.


  m. Revenue Recognition: We currently generate revenue primarily from grants to support various product development initiatives. We generally recognize grant revenue when expenses reimbursable under the grants have been incurred and payments under the grants become contractually due. We also recognize revenue from the reimbursement by our partners of certain expenditures for which the Company has principal responsibility.


  n. Research and Development Costs: All costs related to research and development activities are expensed as incurred.


  o. Income Taxes: Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the realization of the deferred tax assets in future tax returns, all of the deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance at December 31, 2012 and 2011.


Estimated tax liabilities of $6.7 million related to the gain on the sale of discontinued operations and $1.2 million related to income from discontinued operations were fully offset by an estimated tax benefit of $7.9 million related to the loss from continuing operations during 2011. Estimated tax liabilities of $2.1 million related to income from discontinued operations were fully offset by an estimated tax benefit of $2.1 million related to the loss from continuing operations during 2010. See Note 14.


Current accounting standards include guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements. Such standards also prescribe a recognition threshold and measurement model for the financial statement recognition of a tax position taken, or expected to be taken, and provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. The Company believes that the ultimate deductibility of all tax positions is highly certain, although there is uncertainty about the timing of such deductibility. As a result, no liability for uncertain tax positions was recorded as of December 31, 2012 or 2011 and we do not expect any significant changes in the next twelve months. Should we need to accrue interest or penalties on uncertain tax positions, we would recognize the interest as interest expense and the penalties as a selling, general and administrative expense. As of December 31, 2012, tax years 2009-2012 remained subject to examination by federal and state tax authorities.


  p. Recent Accounting Developments: In May 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2011-04, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and IFRSs (ASU 2011-04). ASU 2011-04 created a uniform framework for applying fair value measurement principles for companies around the world and clarified existing guidance in US GAAP. ASU 2011-04 was effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2011 and was applied prospectively. ASU 2011-04 did not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.