Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2013
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Nature of Operations: Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (Navidea, the Company, or we), a Delaware corporation, is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of precision diagnostics. Toward that end, we are currently developing five pharmaceutical platforms:

Lymphoseek® (technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept) Injection is a novel, receptor-targeted, small-molecule radiopharmaceutical used in lymphatic mapping procedures that are performed to help evaluate patients with breast cancer and melanoma. Lymphoseek is designed to identify the lymph nodes that drain from a primary tumor, which have the highest probability of harboring cancer. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2013, and launched commercially in the United States in May 2013.
Navidea’s Manocept platform is predicated on the ability to specifically target the CD206 mannose receptor expressed on macrophages. This flexible and versatile platform acts as an engine for the design of purpose-built molecules offering the potential to be utilized across a range of diagnostic modalities, including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), intra-operative and/or optical-fluorescence detection in a variety of disease states.
NAV4694 is a Fluorine-18 (F-18) radiolabeled PET imaging agent being developed as an aid in the diagnosis of patients with signs or symptoms of cognitive impairment such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
NAV5001 is an Iodine-123 (I-123) radiolabeled SPECT imaging agent being developed as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other movement disorders, with potential use as a diagnostic aid in dementia.
NAV1800 is a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody being developed as a diagnostic aid for use during surgery to help surgeons locate occult or metastatic cancer, with a primary focus on colorectal cancer.

The last four of these drug product platforms are still in development and must be cleared for marketing by the appropriate regulatory authorities before they can be sold in any markets.
Prior to August 2011, we also manufactured a line of gamma radiation detection equipment used in the application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). From July 2010 through August 2011, our gamma detection device products were marketed throughout most of the world through a distribution arrangement with Devicor Medical Products, Inc. (Devicor). Prior to July 2010, our gamma detection device products were marketed through a distribution arrangement with Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. (EES), a Johnson & Johnson company. In July 2010, Devicor acquired EES’ breast biopsy business, including an assignment of the distribution agreement with the Company. As disclosed in Note 2, we sold our gamma detection device line of business (the GDS Business) to Devicor in August 2011. Prior to the disposal of the GDS Business, 96% of net sales were made to Devicor for the year ended December 31, 2011.

In December 2001, we acquired Cardiosonix Ltd. (Cardiosonix), an Israeli company with a blood flow measurement device product line in the early stages of commercialization. In August 2009, the Company’s Board of Directors decided to discontinue the operations and attempt to sell Cardiosonix. However, we were obligated to continue to service and support the Cardiosonix devices through 2013. The Company has not received significant expressions of interest in the Cardiosonix business and as such, we continue to wind down our activities in this area until a final shutdown of operations or a sale of the business unit is completed.

In 2005 we formed a new corporation, Cira Biosciences, Inc. (Cira Bio), to explore the development of patient-specific cellular therapies that have shown positive patient responses in a variety of clinical settings. Navidea owned 90% of the outstanding shares of Cira Bio with the remaining shares being held by the principals of Cira LLC. In October 2013, Cira Bio was dissolved in its entirety.

In July 2011, we established a European business unit, Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited, to address international development and commercialization needs for our technologies, including Lymphoseek. Navidea owns 100% of the outstanding shares of Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited.

Principles of Consolidation: Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Navidea and our wholly-owned subsidiary, Cardiosonix. Our consolidated financial statements also include the accounts of our former wholly-owned subsidiary, Cira Bio, through the date of dissolution in October 2013. All significant inter-company accounts were eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Financial Instruments and Fair Value: The fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value, giving the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;
Level 2 – Quoted prices in markets that are not active or financial instruments for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly; and
Level 3 – Prices or valuations that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.
A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. In determining the appropriate levels, we perform a detailed analysis of the assets and liabilities whose fair value is measured on a recurring basis. At each reporting period, all assets and liabilities for which the fair value measurement is based on significant unobservable inputs or instruments which trade infrequently and therefore have little or no price transparency are classified as Level 3. See Note 3.
The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments:
Cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities: The carrying amounts approximate fair value because of the short maturity of these instruments.

Notes payable: The carrying value of our debt at December 31, 2013 and 2012 primarily consists of the face amount of the notes less unamortized discounts. See Note 9. At December 31, 2013, certain notes payable were also required to be recorded at fair value. The estimated fair value of our debt was calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis as well as a Monte Carlo simulation in 2013. These valuation methods include Level 3 inputs such as the estimated current market interest rate for similar instruments with similar creditworthiness. Unrealized gains and losses on the fair value of the debt are classified in other expenses as a change in the fair value of financial instruments in the statements of operations. At December 31, 2013, the fair value of our notes payable is approximately $29.9 million, which approximates face value.

Derivative liabilities: Derivative liabilities are related to certain outstanding warrants which are recorded at fair value. The assumptions used to calculate fair value as of December 31, 2013 include volatility, risk-free rate and expected dividends. In addition, we considered non-performance risk and determined that such risk is minimal. Unrealized gains and losses on the derivatives are classified in other expenses as a change in the fair value of financial instruments in the statements of operations. See Note 11.

Stock-Based Compensation: At December 31, 2013, we have instruments outstanding under two stock-based compensation plans; the 1996 Stock Incentive Plan (the 1996 Plan) and the Fourth Amended and Restated 2002 Stock Incentive Plan (the 2002 Plan). Currently, under the 2002 Plan, we may grant incentive stock options, nonqualified stock options, and restricted stock awards to full-time employees and directors, and nonqualified stock options and restricted stock awards may be granted to our consultants and agents. Total shares authorized under each plan are 1.5 million shares and 12 million shares, respectively. Although instruments are still outstanding under the 1996 Plan, the plan has expired and no new grants may be made from it. Under both plans, the exercise price of each option is greater than or equal to the closing market price of our common stock on the day prior to the date of the grant.

Stock options granted under the 1996 Plan and the 2002 Plan generally vest on an annual basis over one to four years. Outstanding stock options under the plans, if not exercised, generally expire ten years from their date of grant or 90 days from the date of an optionee’s separation from employment with the Company. We issue new shares of our common stock upon exercise of stock options.
Stock-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options, are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations based on their estimated fair values. The fair value of each stock option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Expected volatilities are based on the Company’s historical volatility, which management believes represents the most accurate basis for estimating expected future volatility under the current circumstances. Navidea uses historical data to estimate forfeiture rates. The expected term of stock options granted is based on the vesting period and the contractual life of the options. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of the grant. The assumptions used to calculate the fair value of stock option awards for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 are noted in the following table:
Expected volatility
Weighted-average volatility
Expected dividends
Expected term (in years)
Risk-free rate

Compensation cost arising from stock-based awards is recognized as expense over either (1) the requisite service period or (2) the estimated performance period. Restricted stock awards are valued based on the closing stock price on the date of grant and amortized ratably over the estimated life of the award. Restricted stock may vest based on the passage of time, or upon occurrence of a specific event or achievement of goals as defined in the grant agreements. In such cases, we record compensation expense related to grants of restricted stock based on management’s estimates of the probable dates of the vesting events. See Note 4.

Cash and Cash Equivalents: Cash equivalents are highly liquid instruments such as U.S. Treasury bills, bank certificates of deposit, corporate commercial paper and money market funds which have maturities of less than 3 months from the date of purchase.

Accounts Receivable: Accounts receivable are recorded net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. We estimate an allowance for doubtful accounts based on a review and assessment of specific accounts receivable and write off accounts when deemed uncollectible.  At December 31, 2013, approximately 69% and 22% of accounts receivable were due from the landlord of our Dublin office space for tenant improvements and from Cardinal Health, respectively, and there was no allowance for doubtful accounts.  We do not believe we are exposed to significant credit risk related to either the landlord or Cardinal Health based on the overall financial strength and credit worthiness of the entities.  We believe that we have adequately addressed other credit risks in estimating the allowance for doubtful accounts.

Inventory: All components of inventory are valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or market. We adjust inventory to market value when the net realizable value is lower than the carrying cost of the inventory. Market value is determined based on estimated sales activity and margins. We estimate a reserve for obsolete inventory based on management’s judgment of probable future commercial use, which is based on an analysis of current inventory levels, estimated future sales and production rates, and estimated shelf lives. See Note 6.

Property and Equipment: Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the depreciable assets ranging from 3 to 7 years. Depreciation and amortization related to equipment under capital leases and leasehold improvements is recognized over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the leased asset or the term of the lease. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, while renewals and improvements are capitalized. See Note 7.

Intangible Assets: Intangible assets consist primarily of patents and trademarks. Intangible assets are stated at cost, less accumulated amortization. Patent costs are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the patents of approximately 5 to 15 years. Patent application costs are deferred pending the outcome of patent applications. Costs associated with unsuccessful patent applications and abandoned intellectual property are expensed when determined to have no recoverable value. We evaluate the potential alternative uses of all intangible assets, as well as the recoverability of the carrying values of intangible assets, on a recurring basis.

Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets: Long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. See Note 7.

Deferred Debt Issuance Costs: We defer costs associated with the issuance of notes payable and amortize those costs over the term of the notes using the effective interest method. During the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2011, we incurred $881,000 and $593,000, respectively, of debt issuance costs related to notes payable. During 2013, 2012 and 2011, we recorded amortization of $309,000, $296,000, and $2,000, respectively, of deferred debt issuance costs. Deferred debt issuance costs and other assets at December 31, 2013 and 2012 includes net deferred debt issuance costs of $691,000 and $295,000, respectively. See Note 9.

Leases: Leases are categorized as either operating or capital leases at inception. Operating lease costs are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. An asset and a corresponding liability for the capital lease obligation are established for the cost of capital leases. The capital lease obligation is amortized over the life of the lease. For build-to-suit leases, the Company establishes an asset and liability for the estimated construction costs incurred to the extent that it is involved in the construction of structural improvements or takes construction risk prior to the commencement of the lease. Upon occupancy of facilities under build-to-suit leases, the Company assesses whether these arrangements qualify for sales recognition under the sale-leaseback accounting guidance. If a lease does not meet the criteria to qualify for a sale-leaseback transaction, the established asset and liability remain on the Company's balance sheet. See Note 15.

Derivative Instruments: Derivative instruments embedded in contracts, to the extent not already a free-standing contract, are bifurcated from the debt instrument and accounted for separately. All derivatives are recorded on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value in accordance with current accounting guidelines for such complex financial instruments. Derivative liabilities with expiration dates within one year are classified as current, while those with expiration dates in more than one year are classified as long term. We do not use derivative instruments for hedging of market risks or for trading or speculative purposes. See Note 11.

Revenue Recognition: We currently generate revenue primarily from sales of Lymphoseek. Our standard shipping terms are FOB shipping point, and title and risk of loss passes to the customer upon delivery to a carrier for shipment from Cardinal Health’s national distribution center to another point of destination. We generally recognize sales revenue related to sales of our products when the products are shipped. Our customers have no right to return products purchased in the ordinary course of business.

We earn additional revenues based on a percentage of the actual net revenues achieved by Cardinal Health on sales to end customers made during each fiscal year. The amount we charge Cardinal Health related to end customer sales of Lymphoseek are subject to a retroactive annual adjustment. To the extent that we can reasonably estimate the end-customer prices received by Cardinal Health, we record sales based upon these estimates at the time of sale. If we are unable to reasonably estimate end customer sales prices related to products sold, we record revenue related to these product sales at the minimum (i.e., floor) price provided for under our distribution agreement with Cardinal Health.

We generate additional revenue from grants to support various product development initiatives. We generally recognize grant revenue when expenses reimbursable under the grants have been incurred and payments under the grants become contractually due. We also recognize revenue from the reimbursement by our partners of certain expenditures for which the Company has principal responsibility.

Research and Development Costs: Research and development (R&D) expenses include both internal R&D activities and external contracted services. Internal R&D activity expenses include salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation, as well as travel, supplies, and other costs to support our R&D staff. External contracted services include clinical trial activities, manufacturing-related activities, and regulatory costs. R&D expenses are charged to operations as incurred. We review and accrue R&D expenses based on services performed and rely upon estimates of those costs applicable to the stage of completion of each project.

Income Taxes: Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the realization of the deferred tax assets in future tax returns, all of the deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance at December 31, 2013 and 2012.

Estimated tax liabilities of $6.7 million related to the gain on the sale of discontinued operations and $1.2 million related to income from discontinued operations were fully offset by an estimated tax benefit of $7.9 million related to the loss from continuing operations during 2011. See Note 13.
Current accounting standards include guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements. Such standards also prescribe a recognition threshold and measurement model for the financial statement recognition of a tax position taken, or expected to be taken, and provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. The Company believes that the ultimate deductibility of all tax positions is highly certain, although there is uncertainty about the timing of such deductibility. As a result, no liability for uncertain tax positions was recorded as of December 31, 2013 or 2012 and we do not expect any significant changes in the next twelve months. Should we need to accrue interest or penalties on uncertain tax positions, we would recognize the interest as interest expense and the penalties as a selling, general and administrative expense. As of December 31, 2013, tax years 2010-2013 remained subject to examination by federal and state tax authorities.

Recent Accounting Developments: In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2013-2, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220). ASU 2013-2 provides entities with two basic options for reporting the effect of significant reclassifications – either (1) on the face of the statement where net income is presented or (2) as a separate footnote disclosure. Public entities will report reclassifications in both annual and interim periods. Under option 1, the effect of significant reclassifications is presented parenthetically by component of other comprehensive income (OCI) on the respective line items of net income. Entities must also parenthetically report the aggregate tax effect of reclassifications in the income tax expense (benefit) line item. Under option 2, the significant amounts of each component of OCI must be presented in a single footnote. ASU 2013-2 is effective prospectively for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2012. ASU 2013-2 did not have an effect on our consolidated financial statements.

In July 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-11, Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists (ASU 2013-11). ASU 2013-11 requires an entity to present an unrecognized tax benefit in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss (NOL) carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward except when: (1) a NOL carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward is not available as of the reporting date under the governing tax law to settle taxes that would result from the disallowance of the tax position; or (2) the entity does not intend to use the deferred tax asset for this purpose (provided that the tax law permits a choice). If either of these conditions exists, an entity should present an unrecognized tax benefit in the financial statements as a liability and should not net the unrecognized tax benefit with a deferred tax asset. ASU 2013-11 does not affect the recognition or measurement of uncertain tax positions under ASC 740. ASU 2013-11 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. ASU 2013-11 should be applied prospectively to all unrecognized tax benefits that exist at the effective date. Retrospective application is permitted. We do not expect ASU 2013-11 to have an impact on our consolidated financial statements.