Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
a. Organization and Nature of Operations: Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Navidea,” the “Company,” or “we”), a Delaware Corporation (NYSE MKT: NAVB), is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of precision immunodiagnostic agents and immunotherapeutics. Navidea is developing multiple precision-targeted products based on our Manocept™ platform to help identify the sites and pathways of undetected disease and enable better diagnostic accuracy, clinical decision-making, targeted treatment and, ultimately, patient care.
Navidea’s Manocept platform is predicated on the ability to specifically target the CD206 mannose receptor expressed on activated macrophages. The Manocept platform serves as the molecular backbone of Lymphoseek® (technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept) injection, the first product developed and commercialized by Navidea based on the platform.
Building on the success of Tc 99m tilmanocept, the flexible and versatile Manocept platform acts as an engine for the design of purpose-built molecules offering the potential to be utilized across a range of diagnostic modalities, including single photon emission computed tomography (“SPECT”), positron emission tomography (“PET”), intra-operative and/or optical-fluorescence detection in a variety of disease states.
On March 3, 2017, pursuant to an Asset Purchase Agreement dated November 23, 2016, (the “Purchase Agreement”), the Company completed its previously announced sale to Cardinal Health 414, LLC (“Cardinal Health 414”) of its assets used, held for use, or intended to be used in operating its business of developing, manufacturing and commercializing a product used for lymphatic mapping, lymph node biopsy, and the diagnosis of metastatic spread to lymph nodes for staging of cancer (the “Business”), including the Company’s radioactive diagnostic agent marketed under the Lymphoseek® trademark for current approved indications by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and similar indications approved by the FDA in the future (the “Product”), in Canada, Mexico and the United States (the “Territory”) (giving effect to the License-Back described below and excluding certain assets specifically retained by the Company) (the “Asset Sale”). Such assets sold in the Asset Sale consist primarily of, without limitation, (i) intellectual property used in or reasonably necessary for the conduct of the Business, (ii) inventory of, and customer, distribution, and product manufacturing agreements related to, the Business, (iii) all product registrations related to the Product, including the new drug application approved by the FDA for the Product and all regulatory submissions in the United States that have been made with respect to the Product and all Health Canada regulatory submissions and, in each case, all files and records related thereto, (iv) all related clinical trials and clinical trial authorizations and all files and records related thereto, and (v) all right, title and interest in and to the Product, as specified in the Purchase Agreement (the “Acquired Assets”).
Upon closing of the Asset Sale, the Supply and Distribution Agreement, dated November 15, 2007 (as amended, the “Supply and Distribution Agreement”), between Cardinal Health 414 and the Company was terminated and, as a result, the provisions thereof are of no further force or effect (other than any indemnification, payment, notification or data sharing obligations which survive the termination).
The Asset Sale to Cardinal Health 414 in March 2017 significantly improved our financial condition and our ability to continue as a going concern. The Company also continues working to establish new sources of non-dilutive funding, including collaborations and grant funding that can augment the balance sheet as the Company works to reduce spending to levels that can be supported by our revenues.
Other than Tc 99m tilmanocept, which the Company has a license to distribute outside of Canada, Mexico and the United States, none of the Company’s drug product candidates have been approved for sale in any market.
In January 2015, Macrophage Therapeutics, Inc. (“MT”), a majority-owned subsidiary, was formed specifically to explore immuno-therapeutic applications for the Manocept platform.
From our inception through August 2011, we also manufactured a line of gamma detection systems called the neoprobe® GDS system (the “GDS Business”). We sold the GDS Business to Devicor Medical Products, Inc. (“Devicor”) in August 2011. In exchange for the assets of the GDS Business, Devicor made net cash payments to us totaling $30.3 million, assumed certain liabilities of the Company associated with the GDS Business, and agreed to make royalty payments to us of up to an aggregate maximum amount of $20 million based on the net revenue attributable to the GDS Business through 2017. We recorded income of $759,000, net of taxes, in 2015 related to royalty amounts earned based on 2015 GDS Business revenue. The royalty amount of $1.2 million was offset by $436,000 in estimated taxes which were allocated to discontinued operations, but were fully offset by the tax benefit from our net operating loss for 2015. We did not earn or receive any such royalty payments prior to 2015 or in 2016.
In December 2001, we acquired Cardiosonix Ltd. (“Cardiosonix”), an Israeli company with a blood flow measurement device product line in the early stages of commercialization. In August 2009, the Company’s Board of Directors decided to discontinue the operations and attempt to sell Cardiosonix. However, we were obligated to continue to service and support the Cardiosonix devices through 2013. The Company has not received significant expressions of interest in the Cardiosonix business and as such, we continue to wind down our activities in this area until a final shutdown of operations is completed.
In July 2011, we established a European business unit, Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited, to address international development and commercialization needs for our technologies, including Tc 99m tilmanocept. Navidea owns 100% of the outstanding shares of Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited.
b. Principles of Consolidation: Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Navidea and our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Navidea Biopharmaceuticals Limited and Cardiosonix Ltd, as well as those of our majority-owned subsidiary, Macrophage Therapeutics, Inc. (“MT”). All significant inter-company accounts were eliminated in consolidation. Prior to termination of Navidea’s joint venture with R-NAV, LLC (“R-NAV”), Navidea's investment in R-NAV was being accounted for using the equity method of accounting and was therefore not consolidated. See Note 10.
c. Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
d. Financial Instruments and Fair Value: In accordance with current accounting standards, the fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value, giving the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1 – Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;
Level 2 – Quoted prices in markets that are not active or financial instruments for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly; and
Level 3 – Prices or valuations that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.
A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. In determining the appropriate levels, we perform a detailed analysis of the assets and liabilities whose fair value is measured on a recurring basis. At each reporting period, all assets and liabilities for which the fair value measurement is based on significant unobservable inputs or instruments which trade infrequently and therefore have little or no price transparency are classified as Level 3. See Note 3.
The following methods and assumptions were used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments:
e. Stock-Based Compensation: At December 31, 2016, we have instruments outstanding under two stock-based compensation plans; the Fourth Amended and Restated 2002 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2002 Plan”) and the 2014 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2014 Plan”). Currently, under the 2014 Plan, we may grant incentive stock options, nonqualified stock options, and restricted stock awards to full-time employees and directors, and nonqualified stock options and restricted stock awards may be granted to our consultants and agents. Total shares authorized under each plan are 12 million shares and 5 million shares, respectively. Although instruments are still outstanding under the 2002 Plan, the plan has expired and no new grants may be made from it. Under both plans, the exercise price of each option is greater than or equal to the closing market price of our common stock on the date of the grant.
Stock options granted under the 2002 Plan and the 2014 Plan generally vest on an annual basis over one to four years. Outstanding stock options under the plans, if not exercised, generally expire ten years from their date of grant or up to 90 days following the date of an optionee’s separation from employment with the Company. We issue new shares of our common stock upon exercise of stock options.
In September 2016, the Board of Directors approved the 2016 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”), authorizing a total of 10 million shares. The 2016 Plan has not yet been approved by Navidea’s stockholders. In connection with Dr. Goldberg’s appointment as Chief Executive Officer of the Company in September 2016, the Board of Directors awarded options to purchase 5,000,000 shares of our common stock to Dr. Goldberg, subject to stockholder approval of the 2016 Plan. If approved, these stock options will vest 100% when the average closing price of the Company’s common stock over a period of five consecutive trading days equals or exceeds $2.50 per share, and expire on the tenth anniversary of the date of grant.
Stock-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options, are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations based on their estimated fair values. The fair value of each stock option award is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Expected volatilities are based on the Company’s historical volatility, which management believes represents the most accurate basis for estimating expected future volatility under the current circumstances. Navidea uses historical data to estimate forfeiture rates. The expected term of stock options granted is based on the vesting period and the contractual life of the options. The risk-free rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield in effect at the time of the grant. The assumptions used to calculate the fair value of stock option awards granted during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014 are noted in the following table:
The portion of the fair value of stock-based awards that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as compensation expense over either (1) the requisite service period or (2) the estimated performance period. Restricted stock awards are valued based on the closing stock price on the date of grant and amortized ratably over the estimated life of the award. Restricted stock may vest based on the passage of time, or upon occurrence of a specific event or achievement of goals as defined in the grant agreements. In such cases, we record compensation expense related to grants of restricted stock based on management’s estimates of the probable dates of the vesting events. Stock-based awards that do not vest because the requisite service period is not met prior to termination result in reversal of previously recognized compensation cost. See Note 4.
f. Cash and Cash Equivalents: Cash equivalents are highly liquid instruments such as U.S. Treasury bills, bank certificates of deposit, corporate commercial paper and money market funds which have maturities of less than 3 months from the date of purchase.
g. Accounts and Other Receivables: Accounts and other receivables are recorded net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. We estimate an allowance for doubtful accounts based on a review and assessment of specific accounts and other receivables and write off accounts when deemed uncollectible. See Note 6.
h. Inventory: All components of inventory are valued at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or market. We adjust inventory to market value when the net realizable value is lower than the carrying cost of the inventory. Market value is determined based on estimated sales activity and margins. We estimate a reserve for obsolete inventory based on management’s judgment of probable future commercial use, which is based on an analysis of current inventory levels, estimated future sales and production rates, and estimated shelf lives. See Note 7.
i. Property and Equipment: Property and equipment are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is generally computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the depreciable assets. Depreciation and amortization related to equipment under capital leases and leasehold improvements is recognized over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the leased asset or the term of the lease. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred, while renewals and improvements are capitalized. See Note 8.
j. Intangible Assets: Intangible assets consist primarily of patents and trademarks. Intangible assets are stated at cost, less accumulated amortization. Patent costs are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the patents of approximately 5 to 15 years. Patent application costs are deferred pending the outcome of patent applications. Costs associated with unsuccessful patent applications and abandoned intellectual property are expensed when determined to have no recoverable value. We evaluate the potential alternative uses of all intangible assets, as well as the recoverability of the carrying values of intangible assets, on a recurring basis.
k. Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets: Long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. No impairment was recognized during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 or 2014. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell.
l. Leases: Leases are categorized as either operating or capital leases at inception. Operating lease costs are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. An asset and a corresponding liability for the capital lease obligation are established for the cost of capital leases. The capital lease obligation is amortized over the life of the lease. For build-to-suit leases, the Company establishes an asset and liability for the estimated construction costs incurred to the extent that it is involved in the construction of structural improvements or takes construction risk prior to the commencement of the lease. Upon occupancy of facilities under build-to-suit leases, the Company assesses whether these arrangements qualify for sales recognition under the sale-leaseback accounting guidance. If a lease does not meet the criteria to qualify for a sale-leaseback transaction, the established asset and liability remain on the Company's balance sheet. See Note 20.
m. Derivative Instruments: Derivative instruments embedded in contracts, to the extent not already a free-standing contract, are bifurcated from the debt instrument and accounted for separately. All derivatives are recorded on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value in accordance with current accounting guidelines for such complex financial instruments. Derivative liabilities with expiration dates within one year are classified as current, while those with expiration dates in more than one year are classified as long term. We do not use derivative instruments for hedging of market risks or for trading or speculative purposes.
n. Revenue Recognition: Prior to the Asset Sale to Cardinal Health 414 in March 2017, we generated revenue primarily from sales of Lymphoseek. Our standard shipping terms are free on board (FOB) shipping point, and title and risk of loss passes to the customer upon delivery to a carrier for shipment. We generally recognize sales revenue related to sales of our products when the products are shipped. Our customers have no right to return products purchased in the ordinary course of business, however, we may allow returns in certain circumstances based on specific agreements.
We earned additional revenues based on a percentage of the actual net revenues achieved by Cardinal Health 414 on sales to end customers made during each fiscal year. The amount we charged Cardinal Health 414 related to end customer sales of Lymphoseek was subject to a retroactive annual adjustment. To the extent that we could reasonably estimate the end-customer prices received by Cardinal Health 414, we recorded sales based upon these estimates at the time of sale. If we were unable to reasonably estimate end customer sales prices related to products sold, we recorded revenue related to these product sales at the minimum (i.e., floor) price provided for under our distribution agreement with Cardinal Health 414. During the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, approximately 99% of Lymphoseek sales were made to Cardinal Health 414.
We also earn revenues related to our licensing and distribution agreements. The terms of these agreements may include payment to us of non-refundable upfront license fees, funding or reimbursement of research and development efforts, milestone payments if specified objectives are achieved, and/or royalties on product sales. We evaluate all deliverables within an arrangement to determine whether or not they provide value on a stand-alone basis. We recognize a contingent milestone payment as revenue in its entirety upon our achievement of a substantive milestone if the consideration earned from the achievement of the milestone (i) is consistent with performance required to achieve the milestone or the increase in value to the delivered item, (ii) relates solely to past performance and (iii) is reasonable relative to all of the other deliverables and payments within the arrangement. We received a non-refundable upfront cash payment of $2.0 million from SpePharm AG upon execution of the SpePharm License Agreement in March 2015. We have determined that the license and other non-contingent deliverables do not have stand-alone value because the license could not be deemed to be fully delivered for its intended purpose unless we perform our other obligations, including specified development work. Accordingly, they do not meet the separation criteria, resulting in these deliverables being considered a single unit of account. As a result, revenue relating to the upfront cash payment was deferred and was being recognized on a straight-line basis over the estimated obligation period of two years. However, the remaining deferred revenue of $417,000 was recognized upon obtaining European approval of a reduced-mass vial in September 2016, several months earlier than originally anticipated.
We generate additional revenue from grants to support various product development initiatives. We generally recognize grant revenue when expenses reimbursable under the grants have been paid and payments under the grants become contractually due. Lastly, we recognized revenues from the provision of services to R-NAV and its subsidiaries through the termination of the R-NAV joint venture on May 31, 2016. See Note 10.
o. Research and Development Costs: Research and development (?R&D?) expenses include both internal R&D activities and external contracted services. Internal R&D activity expenses include salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation, as well as travel, supplies, and other costs to support our R&D staff. External contracted services include clinical trial activities, manufacturing and control-related activities, and regulatory costs. R&D expenses are charged to operations as incurred. We review and accrue R&D expenses based on services performed and rely upon estimates of those costs applicable to the stage of completion of each project.
p. Income Taxes: Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the realization of the deferred tax assets in future tax returns, all of the deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance at December 31, 2016 and 2015.
Current accounting standards include guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements. Such standards also prescribe a recognition threshold and measurement model for the financial statement recognition of a tax position taken, or expected to be taken, and provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. The Company believes that the ultimate deductibility of all tax positions is highly certain, although there is uncertainty about the timing of such deductibility. As a result, no liability for uncertain tax positions was recorded as of December 31, 2016 or 2015 and we do not expect any significant changes in the next twelve months. Should we need to accrue interest or penalties on uncertain tax positions, we would recognize the interest as interest expense and the penalties as a selling, general and administrative expense. As of December 31, 2016, tax years 2013-2016 remained subject to examination by federal and state tax authorities. See Note 17.
q. Change in Accounting Principle: In April 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. ASU 2015-03 requires that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability rather than as an asset. The recognition and measurement guidance for debt issuance costs are not affected by ASU 2015-03. ASU 2015-03 was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption was permitted. Entities must apply the amendments in ASU 2015-03 on a retrospective basis.
In 2015, the Company adopted ASU 2015-03. We have reflected all remaining unamortized costs as a reduction of the debt on the balance sheets as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, and will continue to do so in future periods. The adoption of ASU 2015-03 had no impact on the consolidated statements of operations, stockholders' deficit or cash flows.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. ASU 2015-17 eliminates the requirement to bifurcate deferred taxes between current and noncurrent on the balance sheet and requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent on the balance sheet. ASU 2015-17 may be applied retrospectively or prospectively and early adoption is permitted. We early-adopted ASU 2015-17 as of December 31, 2015 and the statement of financial position as of this date reflects the revised classification of current deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent. Adoption of ASU 2015-17 resulted in a retrospective reclassification between current deferred tax assets and noncurrent deferred tax assets.
r. Recent Accounting Developments: In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern. ASU 2014-15 defines when and how companies are required to disclose going concern uncertainties, which must be evaluated each interim and annual period. ASU 2014-15 requires management to determine whether substantial doubt exists regarding the entity's going concern presumption. Substantial doubt about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern exists when relevant conditions and events, considered in the aggregate, indicate that it is probable that the entity will be unable to meet its obligations as they become due within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued). If substantial doubt exists, certain disclosures are required; the extent of those disclosures depends on an evaluation of management's plans (if any) to mitigate the going concern uncertainty. ASU 2014-15 is effective prospectively for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and to annual and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption was permitted. The adoption of ASU 2014-15 did not have any effect on our consolidated financial statements, however it does affect disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating leases under previous GAAP. The core principle of Topic 842 is that a lessee should recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from leases. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. ASU 2016-02 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We expect the adoption of ASU 2016-02 to result in an increase in right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on our consolidated statement of financial position related to our leases that are currently classified as operating leases, primarily for office space. Management is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net). ASU 2016-08 does not change the core principle of the guidance, rather it clarifies the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations. ASU 2016-08 clarifies the guidance in ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which is not yet effective. The effective date and transition requirements for ASU 2016-08 are the same as for ASU 2014-09, which was deferred by one year by ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Deferral of the Effective Date. Public business entities should adopt the new revenue recognition standard for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that year. We will evaluate the potential impact that the adoption of ASU 2014-09 may have on our consolidated financial statements following the closing of the Asset Sale to Cardinal Health 414 in March 2017.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation. ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. Some of the simplified areas apply only to nonpublic entities. ASU 2016-09 is effective for public business entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early adoption is permitted in any interim or annual period. If an entity early adopts ASU 2016-09 in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. Methods of adoption vary according to each of the amendment provisions. Management is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-09 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing. ASU 2016-10 does not change the core principle of the guidance, rather it clarifies the identification of performance obligations and the licensing implementation guidance, while retaining the related principles for those areas. ASU 2016-10 clarifies the guidance in ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which is not yet effective. The effective date and transition requirements for ASU 2016-10 are the same as for ASU 2014-09, which was deferred by one year by ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Deferral of the Effective Date. Public business entities should adopt the new revenue recognition standard for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that year. We will evaluate the potential impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-120 may have on our consolidated financial statements following the closing of the Asset Sale to Cardinal Health 414 in March 2017.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients. ASU 2016-12 does not change the core principle of the guidance, rather it affects only certain narrow aspects of Topic 606, including assessing collectability, presentation of sales taxes, noncash consideration, and completed contracts and contract modifications at transition. ASU 2016-12 affects the guidance in ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which is not yet effective. The effective date and transition requirements for ASU 2016-12 are the same as for ASU 2014-09, which was deferred by one year by ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Deferral of the Effective Date. Public business entities should adopt the new revenue recognition standard for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that year. We will evaluate the potential impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-12 may have on our consolidated financial statements following the closing of the Asset Sale to Cardinal Health 414 in March 2017.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows – Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. ASU 2016-15 addresses certain specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted in any interim or annual period. If an entity early adopts ASU 2016-15 in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. ASU 2016-15 should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented, with certain exceptions. We adopted ASU 2016-15 upon issuance, which resulted in debt prepayment costs being classified as financing costs rather than operating costs on the statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2016.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows – Restricted Cash. ASU 2016-18 requires that the statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash or equivalents. Therefore, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption in permitted, including adoption in an interim period. If an entity early adopts ASU 2016-18 in an interim period, any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes the interim period. Following the payoff of our CRG debt and release of our restricted cash in March 2017, we do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-18 to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2016-20 does not change the core principle of the guidance, rather it affects only certain narrow aspects of Topic 606, including loan guarantee fees, contract cost impairment testing, provisions for losses on construction- and production-type contracts, clarification of the scope of Topic 606, disclosure of remaining and prior-period performance obligations, contract modification, contract asset presentation, refund liability, advertising costs, fixed-odds wagering contracts in the casino industry, and cost capitalization for advisors to private and public funds. ASU 2016-20 affects the guidance in ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which is not yet effective. The effective date and transition requirements for ASU 2016-12 are the same as for ASU 2014-09, which was deferred by one year by ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers – Deferral of the Effective Date. Public business entities should adopt the new revenue recognition standard for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that year. Early adoption is permitted only as of annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that year. We will evaluate the potential impact that the adoption of ASU 2016-20 may have on our consolidated financial statements following the closing of the Asset Sale to Cardinal Health 414 in March 2017.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805), Clarifying the Definition of a Business. ASU 2017-01 provides a screen to determine when a set of assets and activities (collectively, a “set”) is not a business. The screen requires that when substantially all of the fair market value of the gross assets acquired (or disposed of) is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets, the set is not a business. If the screen is not met, ASU 2017-01 (1) requires that to be considered a business, a set must include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output, and (2) removes the evaluation of whether a market participant could replace missing elements. ASU 2017-01 is effective for public business entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those periods. ASU 2017-01 should be applied prospectively on or after the effective date. No disclosures are required at transition. Early adoption is permitted for certain transactions as described in ASU 2017-01. Management is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of ASU 2017-01 will have on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef